Demonetisation 2016–PC and his doubts

The Government’s decision to demonetize the 1000 and 500 rupee notes has been criticized by the former FM Mr. Chidambaram (PC).


The sudden and swift move has caught all hoarders of black money unawares providing no major loophole to protect their holdings. Their opposition to the Government’s deft move is understandable. However PC is no ordinary person. He is a Harvard alumnus, top Supreme Court lawyer, former distinguished Finance Minister whose views and advice are sought by top business houses. He has an impressive following. His criticism of the Government’s demonetization move is surprising, in view of his intimate knowledge and hands on experience. He says he is perplexed. It is not clear why he has chosen to echo the seemingly inane arguments of his fellow politicians on this occasion. It is necessary to examine the arguments and assertions of this legal luminary.

PC, like his party men, is shedding tears for the long queues of the common man to exchange their meagre holdings. He pretends that he has never witnessed long queues in India. Queues are a common feature of life in India, whether they are in front of a ration shop, or for school admission, voting in elections or for rail or cinema tickets. This is the mildest form of suffering that a common man has got used to, thanks to Congress party’s long innings as rulers of this country. The present temporary queues are for a superior national cause and the country men will gladly suffer it. Of course privileged VIPs have never been subjected to queues and it is but natural that many of them are suddenly observing them and hurriedly using the phenomenon as a weapon to attack the Government.

The next question in PC’s mind is why the Government has put into circulation note of Rs 2000 denomination. The answer is that these notes have half the production cost and occupy half the space of Rs1000 notes, quarter of the space and cost of Rs 500 notes and 5% of the space and cost of Rs 100 notes. Correspondingly they also require less time to transport and dispense, thereby cutting the queuing time. Thus there are strong logistical and scientific reasons that the learned former FM cannot be unaware of. The Government had to keep the preparatory time minimal to minimise the  risk of a fatal leak of information that would have defeated the very purpose of the exercise.


His next objection is that it is even easier to hoard Rs 2000 notes. According to him since the new notes will simply replace the old ones, they would be hoarded the same way as before, even more easily as they are of double the earlier denomination. He cannot see how black money will be reduced. This logic would have been valid if the environment of the past few decades that had actively encouraged the amassing of black money had remained unchanged (including the Congress Government and its FM and the PM).

Fortunately 2016 is not the same as 2006. We have a determined government with a strong spine. It is pushing for cashless transactions and a cashless economy very hard on the back of digitization. The GST bill has been passed which promises to end multiple stations of tax collection accompanied by extortion. Already the income taxman is breathing down the necks of black money hoarders. The Government is aiming to put a cap on cash payments. Technology, E-commerce and secure payment systems and E-commerce (Plastic cards, NEFT, RTGS, POS payments, transparent web sites, Mobile Wallet, cloud computing, reverse auctioning etc) are enabling this at an exponentially increasing pace. Moreover governments all over the world are now promising to cooperate with the honest Indian Government to prevent bribery, terror funding, and rupee round tripping. Corruption will no more be a low risk business. Hawala and benami transactions would be curbed. Accumulation of black money will be simply far too difficult. The new notes are a new beginning on a clean slate. PM has already indicated that the number of Rs2000 notes will be limited and demand for high denomination notes will be curtailed by prohibiting large value payments in cash. Under the circumstances a new baby of black money has no chance of survival to become a grown up monster as in the previous Congress regime. The present successful operation will teach a lesson to black money holders. They will fear that a repeat of demonetization vis-a-vis the new 2000 rupee notes will ground them again. Hoardings on the previous scale can never happen again. Moreover once the current holdings are brought into the white banking system it will be difficult to suck them out of the system.

Historically there was no black money. Successive Congress governments parented it, nurtured it and helped it grow to the present monstrous dimensions through the regimes of ‘Licence Permit’ Raj. At one time the Income tax rate was hiked to a preposterous high of 95% making black money the logical solution to avoid the penal rate. Once the generation of black money commenced it became unstoppable. The reward/risk ratio became enormously high. The Governments made a killing by protecting black money holders and exacting a heavy price. Mock IT and customs raids were conducted after giving sufficient warning to the raided parties to hide their holdings. Do you remember a senior Central minister called Sukh Ram with sacks of currency notes and Jimmy Nagarwalla who managed to flee with Rs 60 lakhs from the Parliament Street Branch of SBI in broad day light in Indira Gandhi’s regime?

PC and his colleagues’ simplistic specious argument sounds like the last straw of a desperate drowning man. You can kill a vermin only by bringing it into the open. That is what the Government has done as a sequence to the scheme of voluntary disclosures that has just concluded by unearthing Rs 60,000 crores. All the 1000 and 500 rupee notes now being exchanged will not be given as cash. Beyond a small limit it will go into a bank accounts mount as white money that will be scrutinised and taxed. If no justification or explanation is offered for a fat increase in any bank account, heavy penalties will be levied. That is how the black money will be tracked and destroyed.

Let PC and the Congress party wait and watch before jumping the gun and shooting off their mouth!



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The Guy of Bad Time(s) Now

The second article by my husband Prof N Natarajan in the ‘affaire VM’!!

‘I don’t think that the time to return is right’ is the quote from Vijay Mallya (VM) in The Hindu’s front page top headlines (Monday 14th March). VM may not have been the King of good times or bad times or any other time. One thing is sure. He is ruling all Times. He has been in command this time and every time.  In his history of business and personal decision making, he has always landed on his feet, except perhaps when he was born. He would have been born a Google baby, cut his mom’s umbilical cord, walked from the delivery table and eyed every nurse (remember the Google ad?)  if that brand had been in existence at that time!

In the brewing business handed down to him by his father he was the bubbly star, foam at the top. From beer maker he turned into a deal maker winning a heady cocktail of brands by sleight of hand. He made deep inroads into the most celebrated international liquor businesses through a series of timely strategic decisions and became almost world’s number one in that field. He timed his dramatic entry into the Aviation sector launching and incorporating his own unique brand called Kingfisher.

Mallya became a high flyer by concentrating on the quality of service for which every air passenger was pining. There was none who did not admire his ability to feel the pulse of the passenger. He treated passengers as guests, served great meals, provided on board entertainment gifted a pen and a few other things to every passenger and abolished the class distinction between executive class and economy class. For a while his airline was the first choice. In retrospect you may say that KF lived beyond its means, but the fact is that it might have survived if aviation fuel costs had not simultaneously hit the sky.

His foray into the sports arena was also a streak of success. Formula 1 was definitely not for the common man. However even in that sport he put India on the world map and won kudos from those for whom it mattered. His innings in the IPL was also impressive.

VM entered the Indian Parliament in style and stayed there for close to 10 years with the help of all political parties. No political party had any differences with him even though they were otherwise at each other’s throat.

An entire consortium of SEVEN banks backed him to the hilt and queued to lend him money. Again, in retrospect, banks may cry foul, but they were in a dreamland when they yielded to political bosses and lent unwisely. They were in a trance when they released each tranche of credit.

VM timed all his moves in a deft manner. His final move to London was the master stroke, in between ‘look out’ and ‘don’t look out’ notices by our number one sleuths. His departure was not an undercover move but he openly travelled first class with his ‘bag and baggage’. He had seven pieces of luggage and a companion to boot.

The common man knows that it is the lousy banking system which has cheated him by throwing caution all regulations to the winds and lending VM recklessly and failing to recover even the most easily recoverable money. It is difficult to believe that all this was done without any quid pro quo. God and the beneficiaries alone know the details of this sordid affair.

Our concentrated wrath on VM is unwarranted. Even in the present mindless tirade against VM there are unintended beneficiaries in the media. They gained when he was doing well and splashing money for publicity and they are again prospering with high TRPs while taking pot shots at him. I call them news brokers, not news breakers since it is the broker who makes money whether the market is going up or going down.

We the people need a hot topic to discuss in our armchairs in the cosy comfort of our drawing rooms. It was Bofors and Quattorachi  once, then it was Harshad Mehta. Then came 2G and CWG  nextscam followed by the Coal scam. It is now the VM season. Sit back and enjoy before the next scam makes it the Breaking News!! Nothing has happened to any of the protagonists of these scams. Nothing will happen to VM or his associate bankers. He can choose his time and return if he likes. He is the Captain of all times!!

Prof N Natarajan

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Good Times, Bad Times…Mallaya’s story

This is an article written by my husband Prof N Natarajans on 14.08.2014

Good Times Bad Times
There is an old story about an important task to be done. Four persons named Everybody, Somebody, Anybody and Nobody were available to do it. Everybody was capable of doing it. Anybody could have done it. Somebody should certainly have done it. But Nobody did it.

One is reminded of this story when newspapers reported that CBI has opened investigations about why IDBI Bank advanced a loan of Rs. 9500000000, ie., Rs. 950 crores to Kingfisher Airlines of Vijay Maalya in spite of an internal report warning against such a move. IDBI bank is in good company. It is part of a consortium of 8 public Sector banks led by SBI which together advanced Rs7000 crores. SBI’s own contribution is Rs. 1600 crores. Other banks in the consortium include Bank of Baroda, Corporation Bank, Central Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, and Bank of India. It is not clear whether a similar investigation has been started against other banks, especially SBI.

KINGFISHER is owned by the liquor baron Vijay Maalya, the King of Good times. It started domestic operations in 2005 and international operations in September 2008. It never made any profit and its losses mounted even as the lending banks kept lending to it till the borrowings reached astronomical figures. Eventually it shut down its operations in 2012 as the DGCA suspended its flying license for several violations of Civil Aviation regulations. The airline had locked out its 1500 employees for several days before this suspension. It treated them shabbily and did not pay their salaries for several months. At least one employee is said to have committed suicide. It owes Rs300 crores to Airport Authority of India. In December 2011, CBDT Chairman announced that it was considering legal action against Kingfisher for not paying taxes and may go for prosecution. As of January 10, 2012, Kingfisher Airlines had service tax arrears alone of INR60 crores. Kingfisher also defaulted on paying to the IT Department, the Tax deducted at source from its employees. Since 2008, Kingfisher Airlines was unable to pay the aircraft lease rentals on time. High flying creativity indeed.

In fairness to it, when KFA commenced operations all passengers were treated as esteemed guests. On board and ground services were excellent. When the guests alighted at the Departure Gate at the airport to take a flight, uniformed ushers carried their baggage up to the check-in counter. Elderly guests were delivered their boarding passes without having to stand in the queue. Freebies were distributed on every flight. Cleanliness and food were excellent. Video entertainment was provided. Recorded voice of Vijay Maalya greeted the passengers. Media showered awards on KFA. All this was to build a grand brand image. Banks were impressed with the life style of the King of Good Times and lent to KFA against his personal surety. However KFA was a story of riches to rags in just six years.

To return to our old story, what magic wand did Vijay Maalya wield by which he mesmerised and paralysed Everybody? Why didn’t Anybody stop him in his tracks? Could Somebody have prevented any of the Banks from acting irresponsibly and inflating their NPA? Why didn’t Anybody act? Why did Nobody do the job?

Here Everybody meant the ruling UPA, the main opposition BJP, bureaucrats including the Income Tax Department, Banking Department, RBI, SEBI, DGCA, Boards of individual banks and so on.

Anybody was the two finance ministers of UPA including the current President of India. The financial wizard, PC could have issued directions for caution or the former opposition leaders of BJP could have intervened by posing searching questions in Parliament. RBI’s auditors certainly must have seen a pattern in the Consortium’s recklessness in lending astronomical sums and then converting some of the loans into dud shares of KFA for a price to partially adjust the loan outstanding sums. SEBI could not have been unaware of the goings on. Income Tax department too failed to launch any prosecution.

Now finally a Nobody called CBI, a bird that has gone back to its cage even after being released by the Apex Court, has finally entered the scene. Going by its own track record it will probably work for another 2 years and produce a case document of 30000 pages of non-prosecutable evidence or launch a prosecution that will not succeed. Finally after a fanfare of publicity nothing will come out of the case.

Here is a possible clue to Dr.Vijay Maalya’s outstanding ability to mobilise resources and avoiding any penal action. He was elected Rajya Sabha MP in 2002 and again in 2010 by pooling of votes of various political parties including the Congress and BJP! He does not belong to any party. He is among the 2 richest MPs in Rajya Sabha. KFA may not have paid its employees, but Vijay Maalya is very charitable in making political donations. He needs fear none. This is the message of Indian secularism and consensus politics.

Prof N Natarajan

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Makara Sankranti..the whole experience, nationally

Special Dishes Cooked for Sankranti

Pongal in Tamil Nadupongal3

Til Poli

Tilache Ladootil-ke-ladoo

Sarsoon Ka Saag with Makke Di Roti or Corn Tortillas

Kurmure Ladoo

Many Melas or fairs are held on Makar Sankranti the most famous being the Kumbh Mela.

Kumbha means pot and Mela means Fair. This Mela is a sacred Hindu pilgrimage that is centred in four locations in India:

Prayag, Allahabad, UP at the confluence of the three holy rivers – Ganga, Yamuna and the subterranean Saraswati.

Haridwar, UP where the river Ganga enters the plains having originated from the Himalayas.

Ujjain, MP on the banks of the Shipra river.

Nasik,  Maharashtra on the banks of Godavari river.

The pilgrimage occurs four times every twelve years, once at each of the four locations. Each twelve-year cycle includes the Maha (great) Kumbha Mela at Prayag, attended by millions of people, making it the largest pilgrimage gathering around the world.

Makar Sankranti is celebrated in Kerala at Sabarimala where the Makara Jyothi is visible followed by the Makara Vilakku celebrations.


In Gujarat the custom is for the elders to give gifts to the younger members of the family. The Gujarati Pundits on this auspicious day grant scholarships to students for higher studies in astrology and philosophy. Kite flying is an important part of the festival and has become an internationally famous event. Brightly coloured kites dot the skies all over the state.


“Kaipoche” means that your “patang” or kite has been cut ! “Manja” is the string used to fly the kites and many ingredients were used to make the string including ground glass and glue. As many accidents happened it has become a banned item.


In Maharashtra people exchange sweets called ‘Tilache ladoo’ that is made from sesame seeds, sugar or jiggery. They greet each other saying – “til-gud ghya, god god bola” meaning “accept these tilguds and speak sweet words”. Maharashtrian women wear a special black saree called Chandrakala which is embossed with crescent moons and stars and get together with other married women to exchange tilgud with a special ceremony called “Haldi Kunkum”.


In Punjab huge bonfires are lit on the eve of Sankranthi and celebrated as “Lohri”. Sweets, sugarcane and rice are thrown in the bonfires. The whole community joins in the singing and dancing of ‘Bhangra’.  Sankrant is celebrated as MAGHI and the body warming food of  Sarson Ka Saag and Makki Di Roti are served.


In Assam, the festival is celebrated as “Bhogali Bihu”.


As it is the month of Magha, the Fair held at the confluence of the Ganga, Yamuna and Sarasvati rivers at Triveni in Allahabad is also called Magha Mela.  A ritual bath in the river is important on this day. According to a popular local belief in the hills of Uttar Pradesh, somebody who does not bathe on Makara Sankranti is born a donkey in his next birth. The belief is probably based on the lack of ritual daily baths in the cold weather. Khichiri is eaten and given away and some call the festival Khichiri Sankranti. People also distribute rice and lentils to the poor and needy.

Ritual bathing also takes place in Haridwar and Garh Mukteshwar and Patna in Bihar. Since it is also the season to fly kites, the evening sky is awash with colorful kites of all shapes and sizes. Several kite competitions are held in various localities.


In Karnataka people visit friends and relatives to exchange greetings, “Ellu bella thindu, Olle Maathu Aadu” (Eat sesame seeds and speak only good).sugarcane and a dish called Ellu (made with sesame seeds, coconuts, sugar candy. In Karnataka cows and bullocks are also decorated and fed ‘Pongal’- a sweet preparation of rice. Special prayers are offered and in the evening, the cattle are led out in a procession with the beat of drums and music.

In the night a bonfire is lit and the animals are made to jump over the fire. The significance of this exchange is that sweetness should prevail in all the dealings.

Andhra Pradesh

In Andhra Pradesh this festival is called “Pedda Panduga” meaning the big festival. A three day festival is held between January 13th and 15th. Each day has a special significance.

  • The first day is called Bhogi panduga
  • The second day is Sankranthi
  • The third day is Kanuma

Aariselu, (known as Adirasam in TN) made of rice flour and Jaggery is a special dish. Kajjikayalu, jantikalu, puliharam (tamarind rice), garelu, boorelu, laddu and sweet pongal are the other dishes. Women and children visit homes of relatives and neighbours for tambulam consisting of tamalapakulu (betel leaves and arica nut, coconut and flowers.

On Kanuma,  farmers decorate their cattle and offer prayers for a good harvest. They sell their produce and get money. People visit temples and family gatherings happen.

Cinema is a very popular media all over the South and people make it a point of going to a newly released film.

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Pongal…Makara Sankranthi..The Farmers Festival

India’s economy, culture and traditions are usually based on agriculture. The seasons, the produce grown typically at the time of the year are all important features of the celebration of festivals. Food cooked and shared at these festivals is made from ingredients that are abundantly available in that season. ‘Pongal’ is the biggest festival of Tamil Nadu and is traditionally celebrated at harvest time by the common man, the farmer. It is a thanksgiving to the sun god, nature, rain and the farm animals that have helped in the harvest.

Sankranthi is the day in every Hindu month when the Sun transits from one Sun sign to another. Makara Sankaranti is the day on which the sun begins its journey northwards as Sankramana means “to commence movement”. It marks the transition of the Sun from Dhanur Rashi or Sagittarius into Makara Rasi (Capricorn). It is the start of Uttarayana Punya Kala, which means the auspicious northward journey of the Sun.

This day is very significant as it occurs three weeks after the Winter Solstice on December 21st or 22nd in the Northern Hemisphere which marks the beginning of increase of daytime. Traditionally, this is an important harvest time in India.
Makar Sankranti is one of the largest and most auspicious festivals in the Indian subcontinent. Usually occurring on January 14th or 15th, in the month of Pausha or Thai the festival is celebrated all over the country as a Farmer’s festival. The farming community gets money in their hands by selling the harvested produce and can afford to buy new clothes, equipment etc. In South India the festival comes after the austere month of Margazhi when only devotion and prayers reign supreme. All auspicious events like house warming, marriages etc. are postponed till the month of Thai or Makara is ushered in.

Sankranthi, the main day of this three day celebration starts in households with a puja to Lord Suryanarayana, the Sun God. A kolam in the shape of a chariot is drawn and decorated with sugarcane, fresh turmeric and ginger plants. A bronze ‘vengalai paanai’ or rice pot is decorated with haldi and kumkum and placed on the fire and milk is boiled. When it starts to overflow the whole family joins in the chorus ‘Pongalo Pongal’. In Tamil the word ‘Pongal’ means “boiling over or to spill over.” The boiling over of milk in the clay pot is auspicious and denotes the fulfilment of the wishes of the family in abundance. Then new rice, split moong dhal is added and cooked to a mash. Finally new jaggery is added and the dish Pongal is garnished with cashewnuts and raisins roasted in ghee with a dash of cardamom powder. In many families in rural Tamil Nadu a new earthen pot is used to cook the dish. The wooden fire is built in the middle of a rangoli decorated courtyard and the dish is cooked, offered to the Sun God with the blowing of the shanku (a conch) to announce that it will be a year blessed with good tidings. This Prasad is distributed to all.

Sweets, made with new gur or vellam, til or sesame are prepared all over India and distributed. Til laddu, revadi are some of the popular sweets. Til generates heat in the body and improves the system that has become sluggish in the winter. So, food prepared in this festival is meant to keep the body warm and to provide high energy.
Brothers give gifts to their sisters, mothers honour their married daughters and farming Landlords give gifts of food, clothes and money to their workers. Gurus visit their devotees to bestow blessings on them.

On the day after Makara Sankranti, called Maattu Pongal in Tamil Nadu, the animal kingdom, in particular the cows are honoured. The famous sport of ‘jalli kattu’ or bull fights take place on this day. This has been recently banned due to accidents where people have been gored by enraged bulls. In coastal areas, cock fights are held. Young girls feed the animals, birds and fishes as a symbol of oneness with all God’s creations.

Travel in many parts of India is considered to be inappropriate, as these days are dedicated for re-union of the families. However, the fourth day is picnic time in Tamil Nadu and is called ‘Kaanum Pongal’ when everybody goes sightseeing.
Kite flying is an important feature of this festival when the sprightly winds catch the soaring kites and take the messages of human beings to the Gods.

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The Gates to Heaven—Vaikunta Ekadashi and Arudra Darisanam


The dark, chilly atmosphere of a winter morning dawns in South India with the sound of music and chants coming through the air. People wrapped up in woollies rush to the neighbourhood temple. There the Utsavar Moorthi, the processional representation of the temple deity,  is decorated and kept ready to be taken around the streets with everyone joining in the procession, participating in the Bhajan singing and reciting sacred texts.

Home fronts are decorated with huge kolams, geometrical drawings executed with great intricacy. These kolams or rangolis are embellished, with the bright yellow flowers of the pumpkin creeper placed in the middle amidst a dollop of cow dung.Kolam with pumkin flower on a blob of cow dung.jpg

People after a bath stand ready with offerings to the deity who will be brought around by devotees on a palanquin carried on shoulders.

Margazhi, the 9th month of the Tamil Calendar, occurs between mid-December and mid-January. The name of the month is derived from the Sanskrit word Margasirsi. The full moon day generally happens on the day when the star, Mrugasirsa rules. This year, Margazhi  commenced on December 17th and will end with the Bogi Pandigai/Hoi on January 14, 2016.

Margazhi or Maag is dedicated to spiritual activities and no weddings or social events take place. In the Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna gives a list of the best of everything where he resides and says that he is Margazhi among the 12 months. No wonder that the whole month is dedicated to the divine.

Bramha Muhurtham is the time between 4.00 am to 6.00 am. It is considered to be a good time to do pooja and to practice singing, music, to study and to do Yoga. Throughout the month of Margazhi, the Brahma Muhurtham is especially dedicated to the Devas.

Both Vaishnavas and Saivas of Hinduism have special rituals based on religious texts and saints who are associated with this period. For Vaishnavas the Tirupaavai Pasurams are rendered in the early morning in all temples and houses. In the Srirangam temple, the Adhyayana Utsavam is held for 21 days. The recitation of the first 1000 verses, the beautiful Tiruvaimozhi by Nammalwar –the  most important part of the four thousand Divya Prabhandam Pasurams in honour of Lord Vishnu/Narayana—takes place during the 10 days prior to Vaikunta Ekadasi. This period is known as ‘Pagal Pathu’. Starting from Vaikunta Ekadasi, for the next ten days, the remaining three thousand verses of the Divya Prabandham are recited. This period is known as ‘Raapathu or Irappathu’. This is performed at many Divya Desam centres including Sri Rangam.

Vaikunta Ekadasi

Vaikunta Ekadasi is a very significant celebration in Vishnu temples like Tirupati, Srirangam Sri Ranganatha Temple and at the Bhadrachalam Temple. In Kerala, it is known as Swarga Vathil Ekadashi and this year it will be celebrated on December 1st 2015. It is usually celebrated in the early hours of the tenth day of the Adhyayana Utsavam. Symbolically, the Swargavasal—the doors to the heavens (a specially designated door in every temple)—are opened in all temples and throngs of people wait in the early hours of the morning to enter the gates and participate in the procession when the ruling deity of each temple is carried around in a procession.

Vaikunta Ekadasi at Srirangam Ranganathaswamy Temple.jpg

Ekadashi, is the eleventh day or Tithi (occurring twice) in the Hindu lunar calendar. Vaikunta Ekadasi’s significance is talked about in the Padma Purana. The Purana tells of Lord Vishnu  taking the form of ‘Ekadasi’ – female energy – to kill the demon Muran in the month of Margazhi. Impressed by ‘Ekadasi,’ Lord Vishnu gave her the blessing that whoever worshipped him on this day, would reach ‘Vaikunta’, his heavenly abode.
Like all Ekadasi days, devotees fast on this day. They keep awake the whole night and spend the hours in meditation, prayers and singing Hari Kirtanam. Rice is not eaten on ekadashi days. The belief is that the demon Mura finds refuge in the rice eaten on Ekadasi.

In Srivilliputhur, the home of the saint Andal, her compositions of Thiruppaavai, consisting of 30 verses is performed. Each day one verse is chanted beginning with the ‘Margazhi neerattu’ festival and the ‘pachcha paraputhal’. The final two verses are also chanted in most temples everyday. The presiding deities, Andal and Rengamannar, are offered vegetables and ugarcane. On Bhogi, the final day of the month, a farewell or Piriya Vidai is performed and Sri Andal Neerattu Utsavam is followed by Sri Andal Thirukkalyanam. The same ritual of singing the Thiruppaavai’s is observed in homes as well.

andal1's garland

Arudhara Dharshanam 

Arudhra Darshan is the most auspicious day associated with Lord Nataraja. It falls on the full moon day, Poornima in Marghazhi, the longest night of the year. This year it falls on 26th December 2015. In the Chidambaram Nataraja Temple it marks the conclusion of ten days Margazhi Brahmotsavam and is performed in all Siva temples. Arudhra is the golden red flame and Siva performs his cosmic dance in the form of this column of fire.

thedanceoflordshiva1The cosmic dance of Lord Shiva stands for the five aspects of existence, Creation, Protection,Destruction, Embodiment and Release. This symbolic cosmic dance is what science says that happens in every cell and particle of life, the very source of energy.

Arudra Darshanam celebrates the ecstatic cosmic dance of Lord Shiva. The famous Pancha Sabhas, the five cosmic dance halls of Shiva are:

Hall of Gold—Kanakasabhai at Chidambaram

Hall of Silver—Velli Sabhai at Madurai

Hall of Rubies—Ratnasabhai at Tiruvalankadu

Hall of Copper –Taambarasabha at Tirunelveli

Hall of Pictures –Chitrasabha at Kutralam

In the month of Margazhi, Tiruvempaavai the first millennium saint, Manikkavaachakar’s  hymns are chanted in the evening, and his image is brought to the shrine of Nataraja. His image is part of Margazhi processions and celebrations in Siva temples all over South India.Manikka

The festivals in the Hindu calendar are associated with the weather and the harvest. The cold weather in Margazhi with its limited daylight induced torpid tendencies. So it is possible that, to motivate early rising and brisk activity and to shake off the sleepy and lethargic feelings, religion, spirituality and the ‘Bhakti’ maargam was used to promote good health and community activities.

The concepts of celebrating the gods’ last few sleeping hours before they woke up to ‘Uttarayana’ after the end of  the Dakshinayana kaalam when (the sun travels over the southern hemisphere) was encouraged in devotees.

Other important festivals in this holy month are Hanumantha  Jayanti and the culmination of pilgrimage season at Sabarimala  Ayyappa Temple.

Marghazhi is also the grand month for the music season especially in Chennai. The frantic Sabha hopping to listen to music, watch dance and drama performances and listen to religious discourses keeps people totally busy and active.

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Margazhi..the holy month and Andal

Andal or Kodai is one of the twelve Alwars or saints in the Vaishnava tradition.She lived in the first half of 8th century CE  Some scholars fix the possible date of Andal as far back as 3000 years BCE.

Andal was born at Srivilliputhur near Madurai, in the Tamil month of Adi (July 15th to August 15th) under birth-star Pooram, on a Tuesday, on the fourth day after the New Moon…Shukla Paksha, the bright fortnight.Andal

Baby Andal was found in the Tulasi garden, in the premises of the temple of Sri Vatapatra Sai. Perialwar, her father, found her while tending the garden and brought her up as his own daughter. Andal grew up in the spiritual surroundings of the temple and joined in the worship of the ruling deity, Krishna/Perumal. she listened avidly to the holy discourses, and to the recitals of the Vedas, epics or puranas and to the bhajans and keerthans sung in that agraharam. From childhood she was fascinated by the Leelas (pranks) of Krishna and developed a deep love for the Lord.

andal 3

Daily, Andal helped her father to weave the flower garlands that were offered to the temple Deity during the pooja. One morning, Perialwar was shocked to find Andal wearing the flower-garland intended for the Deity and admiring in the mirror and enjoying it. This was an act of sacrilege as the flowers were considered to be contaminated and sullied. That day, in deep anguish, he did not offer that garland to the Deity. That night Perumal appeared in his dream and isaid that the garland worn by Andal was special to the Lord and he wanted only those flowers to adorn his figure in the temple.

andal1's garland

Then Perialwar understood that his daughter Kodai was not an ordinary girl.  From then onwards she was popularly known as ‘Andal’, the one who ruled Bhagwan. she entered the annals of Vaishnava sampradaayam as ‘Choodai Kodutha Nachiar’, patroness who would offer flowers worn by her. It became a routine for Andal to wear the flower garland prior to offering to the Deity.

As Andal grew up, day by day, her love for Krishna also increased and she resolved to marry Him. When Andal attained puberty, Vishnuchittar or Periaalwar was amazed at her total devotion and desire to marry Krishna. Andal was advised to observe the Margazhi Bath rituals, a custom observed by nubile girls to win good husbands.

Andal gathered all the girls of her neighbourhood at Ayarpadi at dawn during the month of Margazhi. She imagined herself as a Gopika on the banks of the river Yamuna and performed rituals and bathed the Deity. She danced with her friends to the poems and songs that she composed in praise of Krishna.  These thirty hymns that described awakening her sakhis/thozhis, going to the river banks, singing bhajans and bathing and adorning the Deity form the subject matter of the Thiruppavai.Andal and friends

Apart form Thiruppavai, Andal has also composed and sung 143 Hymns in Nachiar Tirumozhi in which her intense love for Krishna, in varying moods of bridal love expressing tender  hope, utter dejection, joyful triumph, woeful sorrow and total surrender, are depicted.

Andal came to the conclusion that Lord Krishna was the Deity of Sri Rangam–Lord Ranganatha– and chose Him as her Consort.

Lord Ranganatha appeared to Perialwar in a dream and asked him to bring Andal to Sri Rangam in bridal attire. A palanquin, beautifully decorated, was sent from the Sri Rangam temple as instructed by the Lord in a dream to the temple chief.

King Vallaba Deva made elaborate arrangements, decorated the procession route, joined the bridal party and greeted Andal with music and other auspicious symbols needed for a Divine wedding. People cheered.

Andal walked into the sanctum sanctorum of the temple and as she worshipped the Lotus Feet of Perumal, she became one with the Lord. To the astonishment and wonder of the people assembled, Andal’s physical body merged with the Deity, Lord Ranganatha.Andal and perumal

Margazhi–the holy month of prayer, devotional singing and austerity is always associated with Andal and her divine love for Perumal. Her songs are sung, one each day in the prescribed order and she is venerated as a saint!

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